An electrochemical energy storage. Also known as a non-rechargeable energy storage (primary battery).

Primary batteries can only be used to discharge energy once and cannot be recharged after discharge.

Secondary batteries are rechargeable.

What is a battery and how does it work?

A battery is an electrochemical energy storage. It usually consists of a combination of electrochemical cells, the so-called galvanic cells. These cells contain two electrodes separated by an ion-conducting, liquid or solid electrolyte. These consist of different materials (like lithium, alkali manganese, lead). Depending on the chemical system used, the battery systems have different voltage levels and energy densities. The material used for the electrodes determines how high the nominal voltage is. The energy that can be stored depends on the nature and amount of material used in the battery.

During discharge, the energy stored in chemical form is converted into electrical energy by an electrochemical reaction and electricity flows.

What is a cell?

A cell is the basic functional unit of a battery, which consists of an compilation of electrodes with active materials, electrolyte, containers, connections and usually separators. The capacity of a cell results from the size or weight, the internal structure and the material combination of the electrodes.

What is a battery management system?

A battery management system is an electronic circuit that enables the battery to function properly and monitors its characteristics, such as the voltages of the individual cells of the battery, the voltage of the cells under load and the internal resistance. Safety-relevant events such as overcharging, deep discharge, high temperatures, short circuits, etc. are also detected and prevented during operation.